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TFT-LCD 而言，洁净室系统设计及建造的水平不仅决定了工厂运营成本的高低，而且还决定了产品质量和可靠性的高低。 The design and construction of clean room systems is an important part of the manufacturing process of electronic information products, especially for ultra-large-scale integrated circuits and high-generation TFT-LCDs. The level of clean room system design and construction not only determines the level of factory operating costs , But also determines the level of product quality and reliability. On the premise of meeting production requirements and ensuring production safety, how to scientifically design and construct clean room systems to reduce construction investment and operating costs is an important issue facing Chinese enterprises. 月1 日，《电子工业洁净厂房设计规范》(GB50472) 正式实施，这是我国专门针对电子工业领域的洁净厂房设计推出的第一个国家标准，它将帮助企业优化洁净室的设计与建造。 On July 1st of this year , the "Specifications for the Design of Clean Plants in the Electronics Industry" (GB50472) was officially implemented. This is the first national standard introduced in China for clean plant design in the electronics industry. It will help companies optimize the design and put up.
Clean room design reduces energy consumption and costs
In China, the energy consumption of clean plants is considerable. / 耗热和冷负荷、冷冻机组的耗电、排气装置的耗电和耗热、超纯水和气体的制取和输送以及公用设施和照明的用电等。 Energy consumption is mainly used for production equipment electricity and heat consumption, power consumption / heat consumption and cooling load for purification of air conditioning systems, power consumption of refrigeration units, power consumption and heat consumption of exhaust devices, production of ultrapure water and gas And transmission, and utilities and lighting. In order to achieve the air cleanliness level required by the clean room, the circulating air volume of the clean room is large. 次～600 次。 In general, air-conditioned rooms need only a few times of air changes per hour, while clean rooms reach 10 to 600 times per hour . Due to technical reasons, China ’s clean room is higher in energy consumption than developed countries in Europe and America.
倍-30 倍。我国的8 英寸集成电路芯片制造厂，其洁净室单位面积能耗达到1.48 千瓦/ 平方米～1.93 千瓦/ 平方米，比美国同类型工厂高15% 。”上海市室内环境净化协会秘书长王芳告诉《中国电子报》记者，“以上海某知名芯片厂为例，其全年耗电量的51% 用于洁净室运行维护。如果能将这51% 的能耗合理降低，对企业来说就意味着利润的增长。 "According to incomplete statistics, the energy consumption of clean rooms is 10-30 times that of general office buildings . In China's 8 -inch integrated circuit chip manufacturing plants, the energy consumption per unit area of clean rooms reaches 1.48 kilowatts per square meter to 1.93 kilowatts per square meter. , 15% higher than similar factories in the United States . "Wang Fang, secretary general of the Shanghai Indoor Environmental Purification Association, told the China Electronics News reporter," Taking a well-known chip factory in Shanghai as an example, 51% of its annual power consumption is used for Clean room operation and maintenance. If this 51% energy consumption can be reasonably reduced, it will mean an increase in profits for the enterprise.
Not only that, the cost of constructing a clean room is also prohibitive. ISO6 级( 相当于美国标准FS2091000 级) 洁净室单位面积建造成本约为3000 元/ 平方米～4000 元/ 平方米，而ISO4 级( 相当于美国标准FS20910 级) 洁净室单位面积建造成本则高达1 万元/ 平方米。 Qin Xueli, chief engineer of Shiyuan Technology Engineering Co., Ltd., one of the main drafters of "Electronic Industry Clean Factory Design Specification", said in an interview with the reporter of "China Electronics News" that ISO6 ( equivalent to US standard FS2091000 ) clean room unit area construction The cost is about 3,000 yuan / square meter to 4,000 yuan / square meter, and the construction cost per unit area of ISO4 ( equivalent to US standard FS20910 ) clean room is as high as 10,000 yuan / square meter. Due to the high cost of clean room construction and the large difference in construction costs for different cleanliness levels, in the clean room design process, designers not only need to reasonably arrange process equipment to minimize the area of the clean area, but also target different production areas. Set different levels of cleanliness. 英寸集成电路芯片制造工厂普遍采用“开放式洁净室加微环境”的方式，将芯片制造过程中对空气洁净度要求十分严格的硅片加工过程布置在1 级-4 级的微环境装置内，而开放式洁净室的洁净度等级只需5 级-6 级，这样就有效地降低了建设/ 运营投资以及能耗。 At present, 12 -inch integrated circuit chip manufacturing plants generally adopt the "open clean room plus microenvironment" method, and arrange the silicon wafer processing process with strict air cleanliness during the chip manufacturing process in the microenvironment of level 1-4. In the installation, the cleanliness level of the open clean room only needs to be 5-6 , which effectively reduces construction / operation investment and energy consumption.
Wide range of clean room system control objects
The objects controlled by the clean room system are not only the indoor air cleanliness, but also water, gas and other chemicals that are in close contact with the product during the production process.
TFT-LCD 的生产过程中，硅片和玻璃基板的清洗需要大量的超纯水。 During the production of integrated circuits and TFT-LCDs , the cleaning of silicon wafers and glass substrates requires a large amount of ultrapure water. Li Jinsheng, one of the main drafters of "Design Specification for Clean Plants in the Electronics Industry," told the China Electronics News reporter that resistivity is an important indicator for measuring the purity of ultrapure water. The higher the resistivity of ultrapure water, the higher its purity.
25 ℃时，理论纯水的电阻率是18.24M Ω•cm 。 In general, at 25 ° C, the resistivity of theoretical pure water is 18.24M Ω • cm . 微米时，对超纯水的电阻率要求已经达到18.2M Ω•cm 。 It is understood that when the integrated circuit feature size is 0.18 microns, the resistivity requirement for ultrapure water has reached 18.2M Ω • cm . 对超纯水要求略低，但也要求电阻率在18M Ω•cm 以上。 TFT-LCD has slightly lower requirements for ultrapure water, but also requires resistivity above 18M Ω • cm . According to Li Jinsheng, during the production of ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, almost all of the drainage from the water points of the cleaning equipment can be recovered. Part of the recovered water can be used as make-up water for cooling towers and waste gas washing towers, and the other part can be prepared with ultrapure water The effluent from the pretreatment system enters the pretreatment pool together as supplemental water for the preparation of ultrapure water. 。 At present, the ultra-pure water recovery rate of integrated circuit clean plants can reach 70% .
The description of the "Code for the Design of Clean Houses in the Electronics Industry" shows that there are many types of high-purity gases used in the electronics industry, with dozens of high-purity commonly used gases and special gases. 10-9 时，即使管道供应或外购气瓶的气体纯度达99.99% 或99.999% ，也需要采用金属吸气剂法、低温吸附法或钯膜扩散法等气体纯化方法对气体进行提纯。 According to the requirements of the production process of electronic products and the quality of the gas source, different types of gas purification devices are often provided in clean plants. For example , when the production process of electronic products requires that the impurity content of the gas reaches 10-9 , even if the pipeline is supplied or the cylinder is purchased The gas purity is 99.99% or 99.999% . It is also necessary to use a gas getter method such as metal getter method, low temperature adsorption method or palladium membrane diffusion method to purify the gas.
New national standard meets new design requirements
With the improvement of process technology, the requirements for the cleanliness of the production environment are becoming higher and higher. 45 纳米的极大规模集成电路已于两年前投入商用。 Very large-scale integrated circuits with feature sizes of 45 nanometers have been commercially available two years ago. 纳米产品将在今年投入商用。 According to Moore's Law, 32nm products will be commercially available this year. 纳米产品。 Recently, Intel also showed 22- nanometer products to the industry . 纳米的极大规模集成电路的生产要求洁净室的空气洁净度为ISO1 级或ISO2 级，微粒粒径为30 纳米。 Chen Linxin, editor-in-chief of "Clean Plant Design Specifications for Electronics Industry" and former deputy chief engineer of China Electronics Engineering Design Institute, said in an interview with "China Electronics News" reporter that the production of 45nm VLSI requires clean room air cleanliness of ISO1 or ISO2 , particle size is 30 nm.
TFT-LCD 洁净厂房的体积也不断增大。 The size of integrated circuits and TFT-LCD clean plants has also increased. Chen Linxin said that large-scale, large-space, large-scale clean workshops represented by the production of microelectronic products have been built one after another, and they are gradually increasing. 英寸集成电路芯片生产用的洁净厂房，其洁净生产区面积可达数千平方米到1 万平方米，厂房高度20 米左右；第6 代TFT-LCD 生产用洁净厂房的洁净生产区面积达3 万多平方米，厂房高度接近30 米，其中仅洁净室( 区) 及其贯通的上下技术夹层的高度就可达15 米～18 米，而且TFT-LCD8 代线，洁净厂房面积已接近9 万平方米。 A clean factory building for the production of 8 -inch integrated circuit chips. The clean production area can reach thousands of square meters to 10,000 square meters, and the height of the factory is about 20 meters. The clean production area of the 6th- generation TFT-LCD production clean factory More than 30,000 square meters, the height of the plant is close to 30 meters, of which only the height of the clean room ( area) and the upper and lower technical mezzanines can reach 15 to 18 meters, and the TFT-LCD 8th generation line, the area of the clean plant is close 90,000 square meters.
7 月1 日正式实施的《电子工业洁净厂房设计规范》（GB50472 ）在涉及化学分子污染物的控制，以及洁净建筑防火与疏散等方面做出了新的规定。 In response to these changes, the "Industrial Industry Clean Factory Design Code" (GB50472 ) , which was formally implemented on July 1 , this year , made new regulations on the control of chemical molecular pollutants, and the fire prevention and evacuation of clean buildings.