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Design code for detection and alarm of combustible gas and toxic gas in petrochemical enterprises

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1 General

1.0.1 This code is formulated to prevent personal injury, fire and explosion accidents, and to ensure the safety of petrochemical enterprises.

1.0.2 This code is applicable to the design of detection and alarm of flammable gas and toxic gas in the new construction, reconstruction and expansion projects of petrochemical enterprises.

,除执行本规范的规定外,尚应符合现行国家有关标准的规定。 1.0.3 The design of the petrochemical flammable gas and toxic gas detection alarms , in addition to the implementation of the provisions of this code , shall also comply with the relevant national standards.

2 Terminology

2.0.1 combustible gas

Nail gas or combustible gas formed by gasification of Class A and Class B flammable liquids.

2.0.2 toxic gas

Refers to the gas that can cause acute or chronic health through physical contact of workers during their professional activities. 2003〕142号)中所列的有毒蒸汽或有毒气体。 The scope of toxic gases in this specification is the toxic vapors or toxic gases listed in the Catalogue of Highly Toxic Substances (Wei Fa Jian Fa [ 2003] No. 142). Common are: nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, benzene, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, chlorine, carbon monoxide, acrylonitrile, vinyl chloride, phosgene (carbonyl chloride), and so on.

2.0.3 source of release

Refers to a location or place that can release explosive gas mixtures or toxic gases.

(探)测器 detector 2.0.4 detection (detection) detector

An electronic unit consisting of sensors and converters that converts the concentration of flammable gases and toxic gases into electrical signals.

indication apparatus 2.0.5 indication apparatus

Refers to the electronic components that receive the output signal of the detector (probe), and issue instructions, alarms, and control signals.

sensible range 2.0.6 detection range

Finger detection (probe) detector can detect the concentration range of the gas under test

alarm set point 2.0.7 alarm set point

Refers to the alarm concentration value preset by the alarm.

response time 2.0.8 response time

Refers to the time under test conditions from the detector (probe) contact with the measured gas to reach a stable indication value. 90%的时间作为响应时间; 恢复到稳定指示值 10%的时间作为恢复时间。 Generally, the time to reach 90% of the stable indication value is taken as the response time; the time to recover to 10% of the stable indication value is taken as the recovery time.

2.0.9 vertical height

The vertical distance from the detection port of the finger (probing) detector to the specified reference object.

2.0.10 Lower explosion limit (LEL)

V%)值。 Refers to the lower explosive concentration ( V%) value of flammable gas .

UEL) 2.0.11 upper explosion limit ( UEL)

V%)值。 Refers to the upper explosive concentration ( V%) value of flammable gas.

2.0.12 Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC)

Refers to the concentration of toxic chemicals at the work place, which should not be exceeded at any time within one working day.

Permissible Concentration-Short Term Exposure Limit, PC-STEL) 2.0.13 Permissible Concentration-Short Term Exposure Limit, ( PC-STEL)

15分钟时间加权平均的容许接触水平。 Refers to a 15-minute time-weighted average allowable exposure level that cannot be exceeded by any one exposure within a working day .

Permissible Concentration-Time Weighted Average( PC-TWA) 2.0.14 Permissible Concentration-Time Weighted Average (PC-TWA)

8小时工作日的平均容许接触水平。 Refers to the average allowable exposure level for an 8-hour working day specified with time as the weight .

IDLH) 2.0.14 Immediately dangerous to life or health concentration ( IDLH)

It means that the concentration of air pollutants in the environment reaches a certain dangerous level, such as fatal or permanent damage to health, or the immediate loss of the ability to escape.

3 General requirements

3.0.1 In the area of process devices and storage and transportation facilities that produce or use flammable gas and toxic gas, when detecting the leakage of flammable gas and toxic gas, the flammable gas detection (detection) detector shall be set up according to the following regulations And toxic gas detectors.

25%爆炸下限,但有毒气体不能达到最高容许浓度时,应设置可燃气体检(探)测器; 1 When a flammable gas or a flammable gas containing a toxic gas leaks, the flammable gas concentration may reach the lower explosive limit of 25%, but when the toxic gas cannot reach the maximum allowable concentration, a flammable gas detection (detection) detector shall be provided;

25%爆炸下限时,应设置有毒气体检(探)测器; 2 When the toxic gas or toxic gas containing flammable gas leaks , the toxic gas may reach the maximum allowable concentration, but when the flammable gas cannot reach the lower explosive limit of 25%, a toxic gas detection (detection) detector shall be provided;

25%爆炸下限,有毒气体也可能达到最高容许浓度时,应分别设置可燃气体和有毒气体检(探)测器。 3 In places where flammable gas and toxic gas coexist, the concentration of flammable gas may reach the lower explosive limit of 25%, and when the toxic gas may also reach the maximum allowable concentration, flammable gas and toxic gas detectors shall be separately installed.

4 Both flammable and toxic gases, only toxic gas detection (detection) detectors are provided;

3.0.2 Combustible gas and toxic gas detection system shall adopt two-level alarm. When the toxic gas and flammable gas detection (detection) detectors in the same detection area alarm at the same time, the following principles should be followed:

1 Among the alarms of the same level, toxic gas alarms have priority.

2 Secondary alarms have priority over primary alarms.

3.0.3 Dangerous places with special needs or personnel shall not enter during normal operation, continuous detection, indication, and alarm of flammable gas and toxic gas release sources shall be performed, and the alarm shall be recorded or printed.

3.0.4 The alarm signal shall be sent to the on-site alarm device and the indicating alarm device in the control room or on-site operating room with personnel on duty, and an audible and visual alarm shall be performed.

3.0.5 The layout of on-site alarms in the device area should be determined based on comprehensive considerations such as the area of the device area, the layout of equipment and structures, the physical and chemical properties of the source of release, and the characteristics of on-site air flow. The on-site alarm can choose to use a squeaker or an alarm.

(探)测器应采用经国家指定机构或其授权检验单位的计量器具制造认证、防爆性能认证和消防认证的产品。 3.0.6 Combustible gas detection (probe) detectors shall use products that have been certified for the manufacture of measuring instruments, certified for explosion-proof performance, and certified for fire protection by national designated agencies or their authorized inspection units.

3.0.7 Toxic gas detection (detection) detectors required by national laws and regulations shall use products manufactured and certified by measuring instruments designated by the State designated agency or its authorized inspection unit. Among them, the explosion-proof toxic gas detection (detection) detector should also use products that have been certified by the state designated agency or its authorized inspection unit for explosion-proof performance.

3.0.8 Detectors (probes) in flammable gas or toxic gas areas shall be fixed.

、有毒气体检测报警系统宜独立设置。 3.0.9 Combustible gas and toxic gas detection and alarm system should be set up independently.

3.0.10 The configuration of portable flammable gas or toxic gas detection alarms shall be comprehensively determined according to the site conditions of the production equipment, the flammable and explosive characteristics of the process medium, the toxicity, and the number of operators.

UPS)供电。 3.0.11 The flammable gas and toxic gas detection and alarm system fixedly installed at the site of process devices and storage and transportation facilities should be powered by an uninterruptible power supply ( UPS). Gas stations, gas stations, decentralized or independent toxic and flammable and explosive operating facilities, and their flammable gas and toxic gas detection and alarm systems can be powered by ordinary power.

3.0.12 See Appendix A for common flammable gas and steam characteristics; see Appendix B for common toxic gas and steam characteristics.

4 Determination of inspection (probing) points

4.1 General principles

4.1.1 The detection (probing) points of the flammable and toxic gas detection (probing) detectors shall be based on the physical and chemical properties of the gas, the characteristics of the release source, the layout of the production site, geographical conditions, environmental climate, operation inspection routes, And choose the place where the gas is easy to accumulate and easy to sample and detect.

可能泄漏可燃气体、有毒气体的主要释放源,应布置检(探)测点: 4.1.2 The following main release sources that may leak flammable gas and toxic gas shall be arranged with inspection (probing) points:

1 seals for gas compressors and liquid pumps;

2 liquid sampling port and gas sampling port;

3 liquid drain (water) port and vent;

4 Equipment and piping flanges and valve groups.

4.2 Process equipment

4.2.1 The release source is located in an open-air or open-arranged equipment area. The distance between the inspection (probing) point and the release source should meet the following requirements:

15m,有毒气体检(探) 测点与释放源的距离不宜大于 2m; 1 When the detection point is located on the upwind side of the minimum frequency wind direction of the release source, the distance between the combustible gas detection point and the release source should not be greater than 15m, and the distance between the toxic gas detection point and the release source Should not be larger than 2m;

5m,有毒气体检(探) 测点与释放源的距离不宜大于 1m。 2 When the detection point is located on the downwind side of the minimum frequency wind direction of the release source, the distance between the combustible gas detection (probing) measurement point and the release source should not be greater than 5m, and the distance between the toxic gas detection (detection) measurement point and the release source should not be greater than 1m.

15m可设一台检(探)测器,且检(探)测器距其所覆盖范围内的任一释放源不宜大于 7.5m。 4.2.2 The flammable gas release source is located in a closed or partially ventilated semi-open factory building. An inspection (detection) detector can be set every 15m, and the inspection (detection) detector is released from any area within its coverage. The source should not be larger than 7.5m. The toxic gas detector should not be more than 1m away from the release source.

4.2.3 The release source of flammable gas or toxic gas that is lighter than air is in a closed or partially ventilated semi-open factory building. In addition to the detector (probe) should be set above the release source, the gas at the highest point in the factory should be easily accessible. The accumulation place is provided with a flammable gas or toxic gas detection (detection) detector.

4.3 Storage and transportation facilities

4.3.1 Liquefied hydrocarbons, Class A B , Class A A and other liquid fuel tanks that generate combustible gas shall be equipped with inspection (detection) detectors in the fire dyke, and shall meet the following requirements:

15m,有毒气体检(探) 测点与释放源的距离不宜大于 2m; 1 When the detection point is located on the upwind side of the minimum frequency wind direction of the release source, the distance between the combustible gas detection point and the release source should not be greater than 15m, and the distance between the toxic gas detection point and the release source Should not be larger than 2m;

5m,有毒气体检(探) 测点与释放源的距离不宜大于 1m。 2 When the detection point is located on the downwind side of the minimum frequency wind direction of the release source, the distance between the combustible gas detection (probing) measurement point and the release source should not be greater than 5m, and the distance between the toxic gas detection (detection) measurement point and the release source should not be greater than 1m.

4.3.2 The installation of the liquefied hydrocarbon, A B , B A liquid loading and unloading facilities, the detection (detection) detectors shall meet the following requirements:

15m; 1 For Xiaohe tube railway loading and unloading platform, one inspection (detection) detector should be set up on every other parking space on the ground, and the horizontal distance between the inspection (detection) detector and the loading and unloading bay should not be greater than 15m;

2 The stacking platform of the Daheguan railway device should be provided with a detector (probe);

15m。 3 The horizontal distance between the crane position of the loading and unloading station and the detector (probe) should not be greater than 15m. 4.2.1条的规定。 When a buffer tank is installed in the car loading and unloading station, the setting of the detector (probe) shall comply with the provisions of Article 4.2.1 of this code .

4.2节的规定。 4.3.3 The inspection (detection) detector settings of the pump or compressor of the loading and unloading facility shall comply with the provisions of Section 4.2 of this code .

4.3.4 The inspection (detection) detector settings of the liquefied hydrocarbon filling station shall meet the following requirements:

5m~7.5m; 1 The distance between the filling port and the inspection (detection) detector in the closed or semi-opened bottling room should be 5m ~ 7.5m;

4.2.2条规定;敞开式储瓶库沿四周每 15m~30m设一台检(探)测器,当四周边长总和小于 15m时,应设一台检(探)测器; 2 Closed or semi-open bottle storage shall comply with the provisions of Article 4.2.2 of this code ; an open bottle storage shall be provided with a detector (probe) every 15m ~ 30m along the circumference, when the total length of the four perimeters is less than 15m , There should be a detector (probe);

5m~7.5m。 3 The distance between the buffer tank drainage port or valve group and the detector (probe) should be 5m ~ 7.5m.

4.3.5 An enclosed (semi-open) hydrogen bottling room shall be provided with an inspection (detection) detector at the highest point in the room above the filling port and where gas is liable to be trapped.

15m范围内,应设一台检(探)测器。 4.3.6 A loading (unloading) terminal which may emit flammable gas shall be provided with a detector (probe) within 15m from the horizontal plane of the oil transfer arm .

4.2节和第3.0.10条的规定设置。 4.3.7 Storage and transportation facilities for storing and transporting toxic gases and toxic liquids, and toxic gas detectors (detectors) shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of Section 4.2 and 3.0.10 of this Code.

4.4 Diffusion and accumulation of other flammable gases and toxic gases

4.4.1 Between the open flame heating furnace and the source of combustible gas release, an inspection (detection) detector should be set 5m away from the heating furnace. When a solid wall of non-combustible material is provided between the open flame heating furnace and the source of combustible gas release, an inspection (detection) detector shall be provided on the side of the solid wall near the release source.

爆炸危险区域2区范围内的在线分析仪表间,应设可燃气体检(探)测器。 4.4.2 An on-line analysis instrument room located in the explosion zone 2 zone shall be provided with a combustible gas detection (detection) detector.

For the detection of flammable gas lighter than air, a detector should be installed at the highest point in the online analysis instrument room where flammable gas can easily accumulate.

机柜间、变配电所的空调引风口、电缆沟、电缆桥架进入建筑物的洞口处,且可燃气体和有毒气体可能进入时,宜设置检(探)测器: 4.4.3 When the air-conditioning inlets, cable trenches, and cable trays of control rooms, cabinets, transformer substations enter the openings of buildings, and combustible gases and toxic gases may enter, inspection (detection) detectors should be installed:

4.4.4 In the place of process valve wells, pits and sewage ditches, and where flammable gases, liquefied hydrocarbons or toxic gases with a larger proportion than air may accumulate, inspection (detection) detectors shall be provided.

5 Combustible gas and toxic gas detection and alarm system

5.1 Technical performance of the system

5.1.1 The digital signal, contact signal, milliamp signal or millivolt signal should be selected as the output signal of the detector (probe).

应具有历史事件记录功能。 5.1.2 The alarm system should have a historical event recording function.

的技术性能,应符合现行国家标准《作业环境气体检测报警仪通用技术要求》 GB12358 、《可燃气体探测器》 GB15332、《可燃气体报警控制器技术要求和试验方法》GB16808的有关规定。 5.1.3 The technical performance of the system shall comply with the relevant provisions of the current national standards "General Technical Requirements for Operating Environment Gas Detection and Alarm Devices " GB12358 , "Flammable Gas Detector" GB15332, "Technical Requirements and Test Methods for Flammable Gas Alarm Controllers" GB16808 . GB3836的要求。 The square performance of the system should meet the requirements of the current national standard "Electrical Equipment for Explosive Gas Environments " GB3836.

5.2 Selection of detectors

5.2.1 The selection of combustible gas and toxic gas detection (detection) detectors shall be determined according to the technical performance of the detection (detection) detectors, the physical and chemical properties of the tested gas and the characteristics of the production environment.

检(探)测器选用应符合下列规定: 5.2.2 The selection of common gas detection (detection) detectors should meet the following requirements:

1 Hydrocarbon combustible gas can choose catalytic combustion type or infrared gas detection (detection) detector. When the air in the place of use contains sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, lead, halogen compounds and other media that can poison the catalytic combustion type detection element, an anti-toxic catalytic combustion type detector should be selected;

2 In places where oxygen is deficient or corrosive, infrared gas detectors should be used;

3 The detection of hydrogen can use catalytic combustion, electrochemical, thermal conduction or semiconductor detection (probe) detectors;

4 Combustible gas with a single detection component, heat conduction type detector (probe) should be selected;

5 Hydrogen sulfide, chlorine gas, ammonia gas, acrylonitrile gas, and carbon monoxide gas can be selected from electrochemical or semiconductor detectors.

可选用半导体型或光致电离型检(探)测器; 6Vinyl chloride gas can use semiconductor type or photoionization type detection (probe) detector;

宜选用电化学型检(探)测器; 7 Hydrogen cyanide gas should be selected by electrochemical type detector (probe);

8 Benzene gas can use semiconductor type or photoionization type detection (probe) detector;

9 For phosgene (phosgene), electrochemical or infrared gas detection (probe) can be selected.

GB50058的有关规定选用,并应符合使用场所爆炸危险区域以及被检测气体性质的要求。 5.2.3 The explosion-proof type and level of the detector should be selected in accordance with the relevant provisions of the current national standard "Design Code for Electrical Installations in Explosive and Fire Hazardous Environments" GB50058, and should meet the requirements of the explosion-hazardous area of the use site and the nature of the detected gas. .

5.2.4 The sampling method of common inspection (probe) detectors should be determined according to the place of use. Diffusion inspection (probe) detectors should be used for flammable and toxic gas detection; due to installation and environmental conditions, they cannot be used. Places with diffuser detectors should use suction detectors.

C选择。 5.2.5 The technical performance of commonly used detectors can be selected according to Appendix C.

5.3 Selection of indication alarm equipment

5.3.1 The indicating alarm device shall have the following basic functions:

1 Can supply power for flammable or toxic gas detectors (detection) and other connected components;

2 It can directly or indirectly receive the alarm signals of combustible gas and toxic gas detectors (detection) and other alarm triggering components, issue sound and light alarm signals, and keep them. The audible alarm signal should be able to be eliminated manually, and the alarm can still be issued when the alarm signal is input again;

3 Combustible gas measurement range: 0 ~ 100% lower explosion limit;

0~300%最高允许浓度或0~300%短时间允许接触浓度;当现有检(探)测器的测量范围不能满足上述要求时,有毒气体的测量范围可 0~30%直接致害浓度; 4 The measurement range of toxic gas should be 0 ~ 300% maximum allowable concentration or 0 ~ 300% short-term allowable contact concentration; when the measurement range of the existing detector (probe) cannot meet the above requirements, the measurement range of toxic gas may 0 ~ 30% direct damage concentration;

设备(报警控制器)应具有开关量输出功能; 5Indicate the alarm device (alarm controller) should have switch output function;

设备应具有相对独立、互不影响的报警功能,并能区分和识别报警场所位号; 6 Multi-point indication alarm equipment should have relatively independent and mutually influential alarm functions, and be able to distinguish and identify the location number of the alarm location;

设备发出报警后,即使安装场所被测气体浓度发生变化恢复到正常水平,仍应继续报警。 7 Instruct the alarm device to issue an alarm, and even if the measured gas concentration at the installation site changes back to normal levels, the alarm should continue. Stop the alarm only after confirming and taking measures.

设备应能发出与可燃气体或有毒气体浓度报警信号有明显区别的声、光故障报警信号: 8 In the following cases, the indicating alarm device should be able to emit sound and light fault alarm signals that are significantly different from the flammable gas or toxic gas concentration alarm signals:

a indicates that the connection between the alarm device and the detector is broken;

b Check (probe) the internal components of the detector for failure;

c indicates that the power supply of the alarm equipment is undervoltage;

d indicates the short circuit and open circuit of the connection line between the alarm device and the power supply.

9 The indicating alarm device shall have the following recording functions:

30s; a Can record the alarm time of flammable gas and toxic gas, and the daily timing error does not exceed 30s;

b can display the total number of current alarm points;

c can distinguish the first alarm point.

5.3.2 According to the scale and characteristics of the factory (apparatus), the indicating alarm equipment can be set up in the following ways:

1 Combustible gas and toxic gas detection alarm system combined with fire detection alarm system;

2 Instruct the alarm equipment to use an independent industrial program controller, programmable controller, etc .;

3 Instruct the alarm equipment to use conventional analog instruments;

/输出卡件应独立设置。 4 When the combustible gas and toxic gas detection alarm system is integrated with the production process control system, the input / output cards should be set independently.

5.3.3 The alarm set value should be determined according to the following regulations:

25%爆炸下限; 1 The primary alarm setting value of the combustible gas is less than or equal to the 25% lower explosion limit;

50%爆炸下限; 2 The setting value of the secondary alarm of the fuel gas break is less than or equal to the lower explosion limit of 50%;

100%最高允许浓度/短时间允许接触浓度,当试验用标准气调制困难时,报警设定值可为200%最高允许浓度/短时间允许接触浓度以下。 3 The alarm setting value of toxic gas should be less than or equal to 100% of the maximum allowable concentration / allowable short-term exposure concentration. When it is difficult to adjust the standard gas for the test, the alarm setting value can be 200% of the maximum allowable concentration / allowable short-term contact concentration the following. 0~30%直接致害浓度;有毒气体的二级报警设定值不得超过 10%直接致害浓度。 When the measurement range of existing detectors cannot meet the above requirements, the measurement range of toxic gas can be 0 ~ 30% direct damage concentration; the secondary alarm setting value of toxic gas should not exceed 10% direct damage concentration.

6 Installation of inspection (detection) detectors and indicating alarm devices

6.1 Installation of detectors

0.3m~0.6m。 6.1.1 The detection height (detection) of flammable gas whose specific gravity is greater than air should be 0.3m ~ 0.6m from the floor (or floor) . 0.3m~0.6m。 Detectors (probes) for detecting toxic gases with a larger specific gravity than air should be close to the leak point, and their installation height should be 0.3m ~ 0.6m from the floor (or floor) .

0.5m~2m。 6.1.2 The detector (probe) for detecting flammable gas or toxic gas whose specific gravity is less than air, its installation height should be 0.5m ~ 2m higher than the release source .

0.5m的净空和出入通道。 6.1.3 The inspection (detection) detector should be installed in a place without impact, vibration, strong electromagnetic field interference, and easy to maintain. There should be a clearance of not less than 0.5m between the place where the probe is installed and the surrounding pipeline or equipment aisle.

GB50058的有关规定。 6.1.4 The technical requirements for the installation and wiring of inspection (detection) detectors shall comply with the requirements of the manufacturer, and shall comply with the relevant provisions of the current national standard "Code for Design of Electrical Installations in Explosive and Fire Dangerous Environments" GB50058.

6.2 Installation of indicating alarm equipment and field alarm

6.2.1 The indicating alarm equipment shall be installed in the guarded control room, on-site operation room, etc.

6.2.2 The field alarm should be installed nearby in the area where the detector is located.

 

 

 

 

appendix   A    

可燃气体、蒸汽特性表 Common flammable gas and steam characteristics table

Serial number

Substance name

/ 组别 Ignition temperature (℃) / group

Boiling point

(℃)

Flash point

(℃)

V %) Explosion concentration ( V %)

Classification of fire hazards

Vapor density

3 kg / m 3

Remark

Lower limit

Cap

1

Methane

540 / T1

-161.5

gas

5.0

15.0

A

0.77

A Formazan A after liquefaction

2

Ethane

515 / T1

-88.9

gas

3.0

15.5

A

1.34

A Formazan A after liquefaction

3

Propane

466 / T1

-42.1

gas

2.1

9.5

A

2.07

A Formazan A after liquefaction

4

Butane

405 / T2

-0.5

gas

1.9

8.5

A

2.59

A Formazan A after liquefaction

5

Pentane

260 / T3

36.07

-40.0 < -40.0

1.4

7.8

B A B

3.22

 

6

Hexane

225 / T3

68.9

-22.8

1.1

7.5

B A B

3.88

 

7

Heptane

215 / T3

98.3

-3.9

1.1

6.7

B A B

4.53

 

8

Octane

220 / T3

125.67

13.3

1.0

6.5

B A B

5.09

 

9

Nonane

205 / T3

150.77

31.0

0.7

5.6

A B A

5.73

 

0 1 0

Cyclopropane

500 / T1

-33.9

gas

2.4

10.4

A

1.94

A Formazan A after liquefaction

1 1 1

Cyclopentane

380 / T2

469.4

<-6.7

1.4

 

B A B

3.10

 

2 1 2

Isobutane

460 / T1

-11.7

gas

1.8

8.4

A

2.59

A Formazan A after liquefaction

3 1 3

Cyclohexane

245 / T3

81.7

-20.0

1.3

8.0

B A B

3.75

 

4 1 4

Isopentane

420 / T2

27.8

<-51.1

1.4

7.6

B A B

3.21

 

5 1 5

Isooctane

410 / T2

99.24

-12.0

1.0

6.0

B A B

5.09

 

6 1 6

Ethylcyclobutane

210 / T3

71.1

<-15.6

1.2

7.7

B A B

3.75

 

7 1 7

Ethylcyclopentane

260 / T3

103.3

<21

1.1

6.7

B A B

4.40

 

8 1 8

Ethylcyclohexane

262 / T3

131.7

35

0.9

6.6

A B A

5.04

 

19

Methylcyclohexane

250 / T3

101.1

-3.9

1.2

6.7

B A B

4.40

 

0 2 0

Ethylene

425 / T2

-103.7

gas

2.7

36

A

1.29

A Formazan A after liquefaction

1 2 1

Acrylic

460 / T1

-47.2

gas

2.0

11.1

A

1.94

A Formazan A after liquefaction

2 2 2

—丁烯 1 -butene

385 / T2

-6.1

gas

1.6

10.0

A

2.46

A Formazan A after liquefaction

3 2 3

—丁烯 ( ) 2 -butene ( cis )

325 / T2

3.7

gas

1.7

9.0

A

2.46

A Formazan A after liquefaction

4 2 4

—丁烯 ( ) 2 -butene ( trans )

324 / T2

1.1

gas

1.8

9.7

A

2.46

A Formazan A after liquefaction

5 2 5

Butadiene

/ T2 420 / T2

-4.44

gas

2.0

12

A

2.42

A Formazan A after liquefaction

6 2 6

Isobutene

465 / T1

-6.7

gas

1.8

9.6

A

2.46

A Formazan A after liquefaction

7 2 7

Acetylene

305 / T2

-84

gas

2.5

100

A

1.16

A Formazan A after liquefaction

28

Propyne

/ T1

-2.3

gas

1.7

 

A

1.81

A Formazan A

29

benzene

560 / T1

80.1

-11.1

1.3

7.1

B A B

3.62

 

0 3 0

Toluene

480 / T1

110.6

4.4

1.2

7.1

B A B

4.01

 

1 3 1

Ethylbenzene

430 / T2

136.2

15

1.0

6.7

B A B

4.73

 

2 3 2

O-xylene

465 / T1

144.4

17

1.0

6.0

B A B

4.78

 

3 3 3

M-xylene

530 / T1

138.9

25

1.1

7.0

B A B

4.78

 

4 3 4

P-xylene

530 / T1

138.3

25

1.1

7.0

B A B

4.78

 

5 3 5

Styrene

490 / T1

146.1

32

1.1

6.1

A B A

4.64

 

36

Ethylene oxide

429 / T2

10.56

<-17.8

3.6

100

A A A

1.94

 

37

Propylene oxide

430 / T2

33.9

-37.2

2.8

37

B A B

2.59

 

38

Methyl ether

350 / T2

-23.9

gas

3.4

27

A

2.07

A Formazan A after liquefaction

39

Diethyl ether

170 / T4

35

-45

1.9

36

B A B

3.36

 

0 4 0

Ethyl methyl ether

190 / T4

10.6

-37.2

2.0

10.1

A A A

2.72

 

1 4 1

Dimethyl ether

240 / T3

-23.7

gas

3.4

27

A

2.06

A Formazan A after liquefaction

2 4 2

Dibutyl ether

194 / T4

141.1

25

1.5

7.6

B A B

5.82

 

3 4 3

Methanol

385 / T2

63.9

11

6.7

36

B A B

1.42

 

4 4 4

Ethanol

422 / T2

78.3

12.8

3.3

19

B A B

2.06

 

45

Propanol

440 / T2

97.2

25

2.1

13.5

B A B

2.72

 

46

Butanol

365 / T2

117.0

28.9

1.4

11.2

A B A

3.36

 

47

Amyl alcohol

300 / T3

138.0

32.7

1.2

10

A B A

3.88

 

48

Isopropanol

399 / T2

82.8

11.7

2.0

12

B A B

2.72

 

49

Isobutanol

426 / T2

108.0

31.6

1.7

19.0

A B A

3.30

 

0 5 0

formaldehyde

430 / T2

-19.4

gas

7.0

73

A

1.29

A Formazan A after liquefaction

1 5 1

Acetaldehyde

175 / T4

21.1

-37.8

4.0

60

B A B

1.94

 

2 5 2

Propionaldehyde

207 / T3

48.9

7.2 -9.4 7.2

2.9

17

B A B

2.59

 

3 5 3

Acrolein

235 / T3

51.7

-26.1

2.8

31

B A B

2.46

 

4 5 4

acetone

465 / T1

56.7

-17.8

2.6

12.8

B A B

2.59

 

55

Butyraldehyde

230 / T3

76

-6.7

2.5

12.5

B A B

3.23

 

56

Methyl ethyl ketone

515 / T1

79.6

-6.1

1.8

10

B A B

3.23

 

57

Cyclohexanone

420 / T2

156.1

43.9

1.1

8.1

A B A

4.40

 

58

Acetic acid

465 / T

118.3

42.8

5.4

16

A B A

2.72

 

59

Methyl formate

465 / T1

32.2

-18.9

5.0

twenty three

B A B

2.72

 

0 6 0

Ethyl formate

455

54.4

-20

2.8

16

B A B

3.37

 

1 6 1

Methyl acetate

501 / T

60

-10

3.1

16

B A B

3.62

 

2 6 2

Ethyl acetate

427 / T2

77.2

-4.4

2.2

11.0

B A B

3.88

 

3 6 3

Propyl acetate

450 / T

101.7

14.4

2.0

3.0

B A B

4.53

 

64

Butyl acetate

425 / T2

127

twenty two

1.7

7.3

B A B

5.17

 

65

Butene acetate

427 / T2

717.7

7.0

2.6

 

B A B

3.88

 

66

Methyl acrylate

415 / T2

79.7

-2.9

2.8

25

B A B

3.88

 

67

Furan

390 / T

31.1

0 < 0

2.3

14.3

B A B

2.97

 

68

Tetrahydrofuran

321 / T2

66.1

-14.4

2.0

11.8

B A B

3.23

 

69

Methyl chloride

623 / T1

-23.9

gas

10.7

17.4

A

2.33

A Formazan A after liquefaction

0 7 0

Ethyl chloride

519 / T

12.2

-50

3.8

15.4

A A A

2.84

 

1 7 1

Ethyl bromide

511 / T1

37.8

<-20

6.7

11.3

B A B

4.91

 

2 7 2

Chloropropane

520 / T2

46.1

<-17.8

2.6

11.1

B A B

3.49

 

3 7 3

Chlorobutane

245 / T2

76.6

-9.4

1.8

10.1

A

4.14

A Formazan A after liquefaction

74

Bromobutane

265 / T2

102

18.9

2.6

6.6

B A B

6.08

 

75

Vinyl chloride

413 / T2

-13.9

gas

3.6

33

A

2.84

A Formazan A

76

Allyl chloride

485 / T1

45

-32

2.9

11.1

B A B

3.36

 

77

chlorobenzene

640 / T1

132.2

28.9

1.3

7.1

A B A

5.04

 

78

2 —二氯乙烷 1 , 2 -dichloroethane

412 / T2

83.9

13.3

6.2

16

B A B

4.40

 

79

1 —二氯乙烯 1 , 1 -dichloroethylene

570 / T1

37.2

-17.8

7.3

16

B A B

4.40

 

0 8 0

Hydrogen sulfide

260 / T3

-60.4

gas

4.3

45.5

A

1.54

 

1 8 1

Carbon disulfide

90 / T6

46.2

-30

1.3

5.0

B A B

3.36

 

2 8 2

Ethyl mercaptan

300 / T3

35.0

<26.7

2.8

10.0

B A B

2.72

 

83

Acetonitrile

524 / T1

81.6

5.6

4.4

16.0

B A B

1.81

 

84

Acrylonitrile

481 / T1

77.2

0

3.0

17.0

B A B

2.33

 

85

Nitromethane

418 / T2

101.1

35.0

7.3

63

A B A

2.72

 

86

Nitroethane

414 / T2

113.8

27.8

3.4

5.0

B A B

3.36

 

87

Ethyl nitrite

90 / T6

17.2

-35

3.0

50

B A B

3.36

 

88

Hydrogen cyanide

538 / T1

26.1

-17.8

5.6

40

B A B

1.16

 

89

Methylamine

430 / T2

-6.5

gas

4.9

20.1

A

2.72

A Formazan A

0 9 0

Dimethylamine

400 / T2

7.2

gas

2.8

14.4

A

2.07

 

1 9 1

Pyridine

550 / T2

115.5

<2.8

1.7

12

B A B

3.53

 

2 9 2

hydrogen

510 / T1

-253

gas

4.0

75

A

0.09

 

3 9 3

natural gas

484 / T1

 

gas

3.8

13

A

 

 

94

City gas

520 / T1

-50 < -50

gas

4.0

 

A

0.65

 

95

liquefied petroleum gas

 

 

 

1.0

 

A A A

 

After the gasification, it is a Class A gas.

96

Light naphtha

285 / T3

68 36 68

<-20.0

1.2

 

B A B

≥3.22

 

97

Heavy naphtha

233 / T3

177 65 177

20 -22 20

0.6

 

B A B

≥3.61

 

98

gasoline

280 / T3

150 50 150

<-20

1.1

5.9

B A B

4.14

 

99

Jet fuel

200 / T3

250 80 250

<28

0.6

 

A B A

6.47

GB1788 79 的数据 Flash point data according to GB1788 79

0 10 0

kerosene

223 / T3

300 150 300

45 45

0.6

 

A B A

6.47

 

1 10 1

crude

 

 

 

 

 

B A B

 

 

Note:

1. The values in this table are mainly based on the Reference Materials of Chemical Flammables (translated from the Beijing Fire Protection Institute's American Fire Safety Manual), and are classified with the classification of toxic hazards and explosion hazards of chemical media in pressure vessels HGJ20660-2000, " "Computing Chart of Petrochemical Technology Process" and "Flammable Gas Alarm" JJG693-90 were compared, and only the values of individual columns were adjusted; moved to the description of the article

2. The column of "Steam Density" is multiplied by 1.293 from the original "Steam Specific Gravity" value, and its density is under standard conditions.


 

Appendix B

Common toxic gas and steam characteristics

 

Serial number

1

2

3

4

 

5

 

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

Substance name

Vapor density

 

Melting point

) ( )

Boiling point

) ( )

PC-TWA  

m 3 mg m 3

mg m 3 PC-STEL mg m 3

MAC

m 3 mg m 3

IDLH  

m 3 mg m 3

1

Carbon monoxide

1.25

5 -199. 5

-191.4

20

30

 

1700

2

Vinyl chloride

84 2. 84

-160

-13.9

10

25

 

 

3

Hydrogen sulfide

54 1. 54

-85.5

-60.4

 

 

10

430

4

chlorine

3.21

-101

-34.5

 

 

1

88

5

Hydrogen cyanide

1.16

-13.2

6.1 2 6.1

 

 

1

56

6

Acrylonitrile

1 1.8 1

-83.6

2 77. 2

1

2

 

1100

7

Nitrogen dioxide

1.45

-11.2

21.2

5

10

 

96

8

benzene

3.62

5.5

80.1

6

10

 

9800

9

ammonia

0.78

-78

-33.4

20

30

 

360

10

Phosgene

1.38

-104

8.3

 

 

0.5

8

Note: The values are derived from "A Practical Manual for Laboratory Technicians", "Calculation Charts for Petrochemical Processes", "A Practical Guide to the Prevention of Occupational Hazards in the Work of High Toxic Materials", "Occupational Exposure Limits for Harmful Factors in the Workplace" GBZ2-2002 and "Respiratory Protective Products Selection, Use and Maintenance "GB / 18664-2002


 

C Appendix C

Technical performance table of commonly used gas detectors

 

Catalytic combustion type detector

检(探)测器 Heat conduction type detection (probe) detector

气体检(探)测器 Infrared gas detection (probe) detector

Semiconductor type inspection (probe) detector

型检(探)测器 Electrochemical type detection (probe) detector

型检(探)测器 Photoelectric Detector (probe) detector

Oxygen requirements of the tested gas

2 >10% Requires O 2 > 10%

no

no

 

no

no

no

Combustible gas measurement range

≤LEL

LEL ~ 100%

0 to 100%

≤LEL

≤LEL

< LEL

Unsuitable measured gas

Macromolecular organics

 

2 H 2

 

Alkanes

2 ,CO,CH 4 ** H 2 , CO, CH 4 **

Relative response time

Related to the tested medium

medium

Shorter

Related to the tested medium

medium

Shorter

干扰气体 Detection of interfering gases

no

2 ,氟里昂 CO 2 , Freon

Have

2 ,NO x ,HO 2 SO 2 , NO x , HO 2

2 ,NO x , SO 2 , NO x ,

***

Medium that poisons the detection element

Si, Pb halogen

2 S H 2 S

no

no

2 Si, SO 2

halogen

2 CO 2

no

Auxiliary gas requirements

no

no

no

no

no

no

Note:

欧洲标准《可燃气体或氧气检测与测量仪器的选用、安装、使用和维护指南》 EN50073:1999。 * The values in this table are from the European standard "Guide to the Selection, Installation, Use and Maintenance of Flammable Gas or Oxygen Detection and Measurement Instruments" EN50073: 1999. In the design process, the selection of inspection (detection) detectors should be determined according to the technical performance of inspection (detection) products. Move to article description


   

     


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